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灾害现场救援人员职业暴露及防护现况调查
  

灾害现场救援人员职业暴露及防护现况调查

关超玲  魏茂提  王宇  王俊虹  周秋明  陶靖龙  高宏伟

摘要:目的:调查灾害救援人员常见伤及个体防护装备使用情况,为进一步改进个人防护装备,保障救援人员参加救援任务时的人身安全,避免事故损失提供依据。方法:通过编写的调查表,运用互联网调查方法对我国多个省市救援队伍开展调查。计算构成比等指标,描述被调查人员事故伤、发生原因及个体防护服配备使用现况。结果:调查的360名参与救援人员中,参与救援任务三次及以上、两次的及一次者分别占总参与人数的48.89%,23.33%、23.33%。其中主要参与的救援任务有水(洪)灾、火灾和地震。救援人员主要事故伤为手部、脚部、膝关节、腰部等;常见的受伤原因主要包括摔伤和坠物砸伤,分别占总人数的52.78%(190/360)、43.89%(158/360)。218名配备个人防护装备的调查者中,共有66.06%(144/218)的被调查者按要求使用个体防护装备,对服装个体安全防护功能上满意程度基本满意达到79.81%。结论:我国救援人员常见事故伤为四肢腰部伤,原因多为摔伤和坠物砸伤;且救援人员个体防护装备不足;部分救援人员配发个体防护装备不能满足灾害现场防护的需求。

关键词:救援人员;职业暴露;个人防护装备;现况调查

Abstract: Objective In order to offer basic information for researching and equipping the rescue units, the current situation ofoccupational exposureand personal protective equipment was investigated. Methods Web based investigation method was used to acquire information from rescuers by self-designed questionnaire. The situation of occupational exposureand personal protective equipment was described according to proportion or cumulative proportion. Results 360 rescuers who were recruited were all participate in rescue mission in this study. Among the rescuers with answers to the questionnaire,the results show that the primary reason for their injury were52.78 %( 190/360) fall damage and 43.89 %( 158/360) crushing, and the main injuries were hand, foot, knee-joint, andwaist injuries.Among the 218 rescuers who weresupplied with protective clothing,66.06 %( 144/218) were supplied with protective clothing with protective effect. For those with protective clothing, the satisfaction degrees above the just level were 79.81 %( 174/218). Conclusion The situations of occupational exposure were the injuries of the four limbs and waist, the main reason for injuries were fall damageand crushing. More personal protective equipment should be supplied for rescuers. Also, there was a big gap between currents equipment and the field requirements

Keywords:rescuers, occupational exposure, personal protective equipment, current situation investigation

摘自《中国急救复苏与灾害医学杂志》2017年9月第12卷第9期

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